Translated and edited by Kurt H. If there is no self-consciousness, symbolic interaction would disappear and human experience would just be the responses to stimuli.
No longer can the individual be totally dominated by others; whatever domination continues to exist is functionally specific and limited to a particular time and place.
Tuesday, June 7, Georg Simmel — The Metropolis and Mental Life — Summary Georg Simmel's essay "The Metropolis and Mental Life" was originally a part of a series of lectures carried out by Simmel and his associates discussing different aspects of social urban life at the turn of the 19th century.
It is possible to buy silence. He examines forms of group process and structural arrangement insofar as these derive from sheer quantitative relationships.
Therefore he states that science must study dimensions or aspects of phenomena instead of global wholes or totalities. Things have no intrinsic value which would make them more worthy than others, they are only measured by the external objective value of money and time, and are therefore all the same.
Individuals are both objects and subjects within networks of communicative interaction. Not being part of the social group the stranger can look at it objectively without being biased.
In a society there must be a stranger. The organicist view of social life was vigorously opposed in the tradition of German scholarship as represented in the school of idealistic philosophy.
Internet URLs are the best. Simmel was originally asked to lecture on the role of intellectual or scholarly life in the big city, but he effectively reversed the topic in order to analyze the effects of the big city on the mind of the individual.
Most notably, Simmel suggests that because of their peculiar positions in the group, strangers often carry out special tasks that the other members of the group are either incapable or unwilling to carry out. For Simmel, there is a dynamic or dialectical tension between the individual and society -- individuals are free and creative spirits, yet are part of the socialization process.
The individual is perpetually confronted with a world of cultural objects, from religion to morality, from customs to science, which, although internalized, remain alien powers.
But along with the individual freedom in modern societies human beings get surrounded by a world of objects that put constraint on them and dominate their individual needs and desires.
Differentiation, in this view, involves a shift from homogeneity to heterogeneity, from uniformity to individualization, from absorption in the predictable routines of a small world of tradition to participation in a wider world of multifaceted involvements and open possibilities.
Another dual part of fashion that is essential for its production is the need to unionize and the need for isolation. Both are an imitation of a certain group however the complete rejection also satisfies the need to individualize and be different that Simmel originally explains. For this reason, although the methods developed in the natural sciences had to be adapted to the particular tasks of the social sciences, such methods were considered essentially similar to those appropriate to the study of man in society.
If a number of individuals are equally subject to one individual, he argued, they are themselves equal. On Individuality and Social Forms, Chicago: He is an insider and an outsider at one and the same time and that what makes him so important.
The increase in physical and psychical energies and skills which accompanies one-sided activities hardly benefits the total personality; in fact it often leads to atrophy because it sucks away those forces that are necessary for the harmonious development of the full personality.
In passages that may express more pathos than analytical understanding, Simmel sees modern man as surrounded by a world of objects that constrain and dominate his needs and desires. The two exist together, and the one without the other would be meaningless.
If everyone is known then there is no person that is able to bring something new to everybody. Simmel characterizes a few features of the stranger. These contents are, particularly in more developed cultural epochs, involved in a peculiar paradox: Formal sociology isolates form from the heterogeneity of content of human sociation.
In premodern societies, Simmel argued, man typically lived in a very limited number of relatively small social circles. Thus, medieval organizational forms "occupied the whole man; they did not only serve an objectively determined purpose, but were rather a form of unification englobing the total person of those who had gathered together in the pursuit of that purpose.
To Simmel, sociation always involves harmony and conflict, attraction and repulsion, love and hatred. The forms include subordination, superordination, exchange, conflict and sociability.
This dualism starts with our soul and is prominent in every aspect of life including fashion. A Study in Social Relationships.
This leads to intense and exclusive involvements of the sectarians with one another and concomitant withdrawal from "outside" affairs. The method considered appropriate for the study of human phenomena was idiographic, that is, concerned with unique events, rather than nomothetic, the method concerned with establishing general laws.
The human mind creates a variety of products that have an existence independent of their creator as well as of those who receive or reject them. The principle of organization in the modern world is fundamentally different: In secret societies, groups are held together by the need to maintain the secret, a condition that also causes tension because the society relies on its sense of secrecy and exclusion.
As group size increases even more, Ritzer notes that "the increase in the size of the group or society increases individual freedom.Georg Simmel was an early German sociologist known for creating social theories that fostered an approach to studying society that broke with the scientific methods used to study the natural world.
Simmel's The Philosophy of Money is a much neglected classic. While most of his sociological work has now been translated into English, we still lack a translation of this seminal work.
One possible reason for its neglect is the title, which could have led many to infer that this is one of Simmel's metaphysical works. Notes on Georg Simmel. These notes on Georg Simmel were prepared for SociologyIntroduction to Social Theory, in Fall, The notes provide an overview and some examples of Simmel's approach to the study of society.
"The Stranger" is a sociological essay by Georg Simmel that describes the role of the stranger in society. In the essay, Simmel explains how the stranger is neither the "outsider, a person who remains separate from society, nor the wanderer, a person who travels from place to place without ever.
In the article Simmel discusses many factors of how fashion relates to the inner and outer struggles that people have. The most important being the struggle to balance fitting in with standing out.
Fashion either helps or hurts this struggle, and revolves around it in itself. Mar 04, · According to Simmel's argument the stranger is dissimilar from the wanderer which comes and goes but is rather just one who always has that potential since he doesn't truly and fully belong.
The stranger for Simmel is one which is within the bounds of society but wasn't so from the beginning not are there any guarantees that he will to continue to be so.Download